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2013

Denning, T., Kohno, T., and Levy, H. M. (2013) Computer security and the modern home. Communications of the ACM, 56(1), 94-103.  [pdf]

Epstein, D. A., Borning, A., and Fogarty, J. (2013). Fine-grained sharing of sensed physical activity: a value sensitive approach. Proceedings of Upicomp 2013, 489-498. New York, NY: ACM Press. [pdf]

Friedman, B., Denning, T., and Kohno, T. (2013). Security Cards: A security threat brainstorming toolkit. University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Available at: securitycards.cs.washington.edu

Yoo, D., Huldtgren, A., Woelfer, J. P., Hendry, D. G., and Friedman, B. (2013). A value sensitive action-reflection model: Evolving a co-design space with stakeholder and designer prompts. Proceedings of CHI 2013, 419-428. New York, NY: ACM Press. [pdf]

Yoo, D., Lake, M., Nilsen, T., Utter, M. E., Alsdorf, R., Bizimana, T., Nathan, L. P., Ring, M., Utter, E. J., Utter, R. F., and Friedman, B. (2013). Envisioning across generations: A multi-lifespan information system for international justice in Rwanda. Proceedings of CHI 2013, 2527-2536. New York, NY: ACM Press. [pdf]

2012

Borning, A. and Muller, M. (2012). Next steps for Value Sensitive Design. Proceedings of CHI 2012, 1125-1134. New York, NY: ACM Press. Nominated for Best Paper Award [pdf]

Friedman, B., and Hendry, D. G. (2012). The Envisioning Cards: A toolkit for catalyzing humanistic and technical imagination. Proceedings of CHI 2012, 1145-1148. New York, NY: ACM Press. Nominated for Best Paper Award [pdf]

Munson, S.A., Avrahami, D., Consolvo, S., Fogarty, J., Friedman, B., and Smith, I. (2012). Sunlight or Sunburn: A Survey of Attitudes toward Online Availability of US Public Records. Information Polity 17(2): 99-114.

Nilsen, T., Grey, N. C., and Friedman, B. (2012). Public curation of a historic collection: A means for speaking safely in public. Extended Abstracts of CSCW 2012, 277-278. New York, NY: ACM Press. [pdf]

Woelfer, J. P., and Lee, J. H. (2012). The role of music in the lives of homeless young people in Seattle WA and Vancouver BC. Extended Abstracts of CHI 2012 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 955-958. New York, NY: ACM Press. [pdf]

Woelfer, J. P., and Lee, J. H. (2012). The role of music in the lives of homeless young people: A preliminary report. Proceedings of ISMIR 2012, International Society for Music Information Retrieval (2012), 367-372. [pdf]

Woelfer, J. P., and Hendry, D. G. (2012). Homeless young people on social network sites. Proceedings of CHI 2012, 2825-2834. New York, NY: ACM Press. [pdf]

2011

Azenkot, S., Prasain, S., Borning, A., Fortuna, E., Ladner, R. E., and Wobbrock, J. O. (2011). Enhancing independence and safety for blind and deaf-blind public transit riders. Proceedings of CHI 2011. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

Deibel, K. (2011). Understanding and supporting the adoption of assistive technologies by adults with reading disabilities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. [pdf]

Friedman, B., Nathan, L. P., Kane, S., and Lin, J. (2011). Envisioning Cards. University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Available at: envisioningcards.com

Hendry, D. G., Woelfer, J. P., Harper, R., Bauer, T., Fitzer, B., and Champagne, M. (2011). How to integrate digital media into a drop-in for homeless young people for deepening relationships between youth and adults. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(5), 774-782. [pdf]

Munson, S. A., Avrahami, D., Consolvo, S., Fogarty, J., Friedman, B., and Smith, I. (2011). Attitudes toward online availability of US public records. Proceedings of dg.o 2011. New York: ACM Press. Best Research Paper Award [pdf]

Nathan, L.P., Grey, N.C., Lake, M., Nilsen, T., Utter, E., Utter, R.F., Ring, M., Kahn, Z., and Friedman, B. (2011). Multi-lifespan information system design: Investigating a new design approach in Rwanda. Proceedings of iConference 2011, 591-597. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

Woelfer, J. P., and Hendry, D. G. (2011). Homeless young people and technology: Ordinary interactions, extraordinary circumstances. ACM interactions, 28(6), 70-73. [pdf]

Woelfer, J. P., Iverson, A., Hendry, D.G., Friedman, B., and Gill, B. (2011). Improving the safety of homeless young people with mobile phones: Values, form and function. Proceedings of CHI 2011, 1707-1716. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

Woelfer, J. P., and Hendry, D. G. (2011). Designing ubiquitous information systems for a community of homeless young people: Precaution and a way forward. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing. [pdf]

Woelfer, J. P., and Hendry, D.G. (2011). Homeless young people and living with personal digital artifacts. Proceedings of CHI 2011, 1697-1706. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

2010

Czeskis, A., Dermendjieva, I., Yapit, H., Borning, A., Friedman, B., Gill, B.T., and Kohno, T. (2010). Parenting from the pocket: Value tensions and technical directions for secure and private parent-teen mobile safety. Proceedings of SOUPS 2010. New York: ACM Press. [25% acceptance rate] Winner, 2010 Multi-disciplinary Paper in Privacy Award presented at the Computers, Privacy & Data Protection. [pdf]

Denning, T., Borning, A., Friedman, B., Gill, B., Kohno, T., and Maisel, W. (2010). Patients, pacemakers, and implantable defibrillators: Human values and security for wireless implantable medical devices. Proceedings of CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 917-926. New York: ACM Press. [22% acceptance rate] Honorable Mention, 2010 Multi-disciplinary Paper in Privacy Award presented at the Computers, Privacy & Data Protection. [pdf]

Friedman, B., Nathan, L.P., Grey, N.C., Lake, M., Nilsen, T., Utter, E., Utter, R.F., Ring, M., and Kahn, Z. (2010). Multi-lifespan information system design in post-conflict societies: An evolving project in Rwanda. Extended Abstracts of CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2833-2842. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

Friedman, B., and Nathan, L.P. (2010). Multi-lifespan information system design: A research initiative for the HCI community. Proceedings of CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2243-2246. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

Nathan, L. P., and Friedman, B. (2010). Interacting with policy in a political world: Reflections from the Voices of the Rwanda Tribunal project. ACM interactions, 17(5), 56-59. [pdf]

Woelfer, J. P., and Hendry, D.G. (2010). Homeless young people's experiences with information systems: Life and work in a community technology center. Proceedings of CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1291-1300. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

2009

Czeskis, A., Koscher, K., Andrews, M., Grey, N.C., Friedman, B., and Kohno, T. (2009, March 27). The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda information heritage project (aka Voices from the Rwanda Tribunal): Integrity verification architecture. (UW Computer Science and Engineering Technical Report 09-01-02). Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. [pdf]

Melson, G. F., Kahn, P. H., Jr., Beck, A. M., and Friedman, B. (2009). Robotic pets in human lives: Implications for the human-animal bond and for human relationships with personified technologies. Journal of Social Issues, 65(3), 545-567. [pdf]

Melson, G. F., Kahn, P. H., Jr., Beck, A. M., Friedman, B., Roberts, T., Garrett, E., and Gill, B. T. (2009). Children's behavior toward and understanding of robotic and living dogs. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 92-102. [pdf]

Nathan, L.P., Hendry, D., and Friedman, B. (2009). Information system design as catalyst: Human action and environmental sustainability. Interactions, 16(4), 6-11. [pdf]

Woelfer, J.P., and Hendry, D.G. (2009). Stabilizing homeless young people with information and place. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60, 2300-2312. [pdf]

2008

Davis, J. (2008). Engaging and informing citizens with household indicators. Proceedings of Hawai'i International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-41), 190. Waikoloa, Hawaii. [pdf]

Freier, N. G. (2008). Children attribute moral standing to a personified agent. Proceedings of CHI 2008, 343-352. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

Friedman, B. (2008). Value Sensitive Design. In D. Schular (Ed.), Liberating voices: A pattern language for communication revolution, 366-368. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. [pdf]

Friedman, B., Borning, A., Davis, J. L., Gill, B. T., Kahn, Jr., P., Kriplean, T., and Lin, P. (2008). Laying the foundations for public participation and value advocacy: Interaction design for a large scale urban simulation. Proceedings of the 9th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research (dg.o2008), 305-314. Montreal, Canada: Digital Government Society of North America. [pdf]

Friedman, B., Freier, N. G., Kahn, P. H., Jr., Lin, P., and Sodeman, R. (2008). Office window of the future? -- Field-based analyses of a new use of a large display. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 66(6), 452-465. [pdf]

Friedman, B., Höök, K., Gill, B.T., Eidmar, L., Sallmander Prien, C., and Severson, R.L. (2008). Personlig integritet: A comparative study of perceptions of privacy in public places in Sweden and the United States. Proceedings of NordiCHI 2008, 142-151. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

Hendry, D.G. and B. Friedman (2008). Theories and practice of design for interactive systems: Eight design perspectives in ten short weeks. Proceedings of ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS'08), 435-444. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

Kahn, P. H., Jr., Friedman, B., Gill, B. T., Hagman, J., Severson, R. L., Freier, N. G., Feldman, E. N., Carrere, S., and Stolyar, A. (2008). A plasma display window? - The shifting baseline problem in a technologically-mediated natural word. Journal of Environmental Psychology 28(2), 192-199. [pdf]

Nathan, L.P., Friedman, B., Klasjna, P.V., Kane, S.K., and Miller, J.K. (2008). Envisioning systemic effects on persons and society throughout interactive system design. Proceedings of ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS'08), 1-10. New York: ACM Press [pdf]

Woelfer, J.P., Yeung, M. W-M., Erdmann, C.G., and Hendry, D.G. (2008). Value considerations in an information ecology: Printed materials, service agencies, and homeless young people. Proceedings of 71st Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (ASIST AM '08), 248-256. Silver Spring: ASIS. [pdf]

2007

Freier, N. G. (2007). Children distinguish conventional from moral violations in interactions with a personified agent. Extended Abstracts of CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2195-2200. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

Kahn, P.H., Jr., Ishiguro, H., Friedman, B., Kanda, T., Freier, N.G., Severson, R.L., and Miller, J.K. (2007). What is a human? - Toward psychological benchmarks in the field of human-robot interaction. Interaction Studies: Social Behavior and Communication in Biological and Artificial systems, 8(3), 363-390. [pdf]

Miller, J. K., Friedman, B., Jancke, G., and Gill, B. (2007). Value tensions in design: The value sensitive design, development, and appropriation of a corporation's groupware system. Proceedings of GROUP 2007, 281-290. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

Nathan, L. P., Klasnja, P. V., and Friedman, B. (2007). Value scenarios: a technique for envisioning systemic effects of new technologies. Extended Abstracts of CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2585-2590. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

2006

Davis, J. (2006). Household indicators: Design to inform and engage citizens. Extended Abstracts of CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 688-693. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

Davis, J. (2006). Value Sensitive Design of interactions with UrbanSim indicators. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington. [pdf]

Davis, J., Lin, P., Borning, A., Friedman, B., Kahn, P.H., and Waddell, P.A. (2006). Simulations for urban planning: Designing for human values. Computer, 39(9), 66-72. [pdf]

Friedman, B., Kahn, P. H., Jr., and Borning, A. (2006). Value Sensitive Design and information systems. In P. Zhang and D. Galletta (eds.), Human-computer interaction in management information systems: Foundations, 348-372. Armonk, New York; London, England: M.E. Sharpe. Reprinted (2008) in K.E. Himma and H.T. Tavani (Eds.), The handbook of information and computer ethics, 69-101. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Reprinted (2013) in N. Doorn, D. Schuurbiers, I. van de Poel, and M. E. Gorman (Eds.), Early engagement and new technologies: Opening up the laboratory. Dordrecht, Germany: Springer. [pdf]

Friedman, B., Kahn, P. H., Jr., Hagman, J., Severson, R. L., and Gill, B. (2006). The watcher and the watched: Social judgments about privacy in a public place. Human-Computer Interaction, 21, 235-272. [pdf]

Friedman, B., Smith, I. E., Kahn, P. H., Jr., Consolvo, S., and Selawski, J. (2006). Development of a privacy addendum for open source licenses: Value Sensitive Design in industry. Proceedings of Ubicomp 2006 , 194-211. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer-Verlag. [pdf]

Kahn, P. H., Jr., Ishiguro, H., Friedman, B., and T. Kanda (2006). What is a human? - Toward psychological benchmarks in the field of human-robot interaction. Proceedings of 15th International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN '06). Hatfield, UK: IEEE. [pdf]

Kahn, P.H., Friedman, B., Perez-Granados, D.R., and Freier, N.G. (2006). Robotic pets in the lives of preschool children. Interaction Studies, 7(3), 405-436. [pdf]

2005

Borning, A., Friedman, B., Davis, J., and Lin, P. (2005). Informing public deliberation: Value sensitive design of indicators for a large-scale urban simulation. Proceedings of ECSCW 2005 European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 449-468. Paris, France. [pdf]

Borning, A., and Davis, J. (2005). Three contexts of appropriation for an urban simulation system. Position paper for the workshop on "Supporting Appropriation Work: Approaches for the 'reflective' user." Ninth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work. Paris, France. [pdf]

Friedman, B. (2005). Reflections on Usable Privacy for Location-Awareness Systems. (UW Information School Technical Report IS-robotics_and_software_agents-2005-06-02). Seattle, WA: University of Washington, The Information School. [pdf]

Friedman, B., and Freier, N. G. (2005). Value Sensitive Design. In K. E. Fisher, S. Erdelez, and E. F. McKechnie (Eds.). Theories of information behavior: A researcher's guide, 368-372. Medford, NJ: Information Today. [pdf]

Friedman, B., Kahn, P. H., Jr., Hagman, J., and Severson, R. L. (2005). Coding manual for 'The Watcher and The Watched: Social Judgments about Privacy in a Public Place.' (UW Information School Technical Report IS-robotics_and_software_agents-2005-07-01). Seattle, WA: University of Washington, The Information School. [pdf]

Friedman, B., Lin, P., and Miller, J. K. (2005). Informed consent by design. In L. Cranor and S. Garfinkel (Eds.), Designing secure systems that people can use, 495-521. Cambridge, MA: O'Reilly and Associates. [pdf]

Kahn, P. H., Jr., Friedman, B., Alexander, I. A., Freier, N. G., and Collett, S. (2005). The distant gardener: What conversations in the Telegarden reveal about human-telerobotic interaction. Proceedings of 14th International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN '05) , 13-18. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE. [pdf]

Kahn, P. H., Jr., Friedman, B., and Alexander, I. S. (2005). Coding manual for 'The distant gardener: What conversations in the Telegarden reveal about the user experience of human-telerobotic interaction.' (UW Information School Technical Report, IS-robotics_and_software_agents-2005-06-01). Seattle, WA: University of Washington, The Information School. [pdf]

Kahn, P. H., Jr., Friedman, B., Severson, R. L., and Feldman, E. N. (2005). Creativity tasks and coding system - Used in the plasma display window study (Tech. Rep. No. IS-robotics_and_software_agents-2005-04-01). Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Information School. [pdf]

Melson, G. F., Kahn, Jr., P. H., Beck, A. M., Friedman, B., Roberts, T., and Garrett, E. (2005). Robots as dogs?: Children's interactions with the robotic dog AIBO and a live Australian Shepherd. Extended Abstracts of CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems., 1649-1652. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

Walldius, A., Sundblad, Y., and Borning, A. (2005). A first analysis of the UsersAward programme from a value sensitive design perspective. Proceedings of Critical Computing -- Between Sense and Sensibility, The Fourth Decennial Aarhus Conference. Aarhus, Denmark. [pdf]

2004

Borning, A., Friedman, B., and Kahn, P.H., Jr. (2004). Designing for human values in an urban simulation system: Value sensitive design and participatory design. Short Papers, Eighth Biennial Participatory Design Conference, 67-71. Palo Alto, CA: Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility. [pdf]

Friedman, B. (2004). Value Sensitive Design. In W.S. Bainbridge (ed.), Encyclopedia of human-computer interaction, 769-774. Great Barrington, MA: Berkshire Publishing Group. [pdf]

Friedman, B., Freier, N. G., and Kahn, P. H., Jr. (2004). Office window of the future? Two case studies of an augmented window. Extended Abstracts of CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1559. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

Kahn, Jr., P. H., Friedman, B., Perez-Granados, D. R., and Freier, N. G. (2004). Robotic pets in the lives of preschool children. Extended Abstract of CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1449-1452. New York: ACM Press. [Associated video clip.] [pdf]

Kahn, P.H., Jr., Freier, N. G., Friedman, B., Severson, R. L., and Feldman, E. (2004). Social and moral relationships with robotic others? Proceedings of 13th International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN '04), 545-550. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE. [pdf]

2003

Friedman, B., and Kahn, P. H., Jr. (2003). Human values, ethics, and design. In J. A. Jacko and A. Sears (Eds.), The human-computer interaction handbook, 1177-1201. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [Revised second edition, 2008, pp. 1241-1266.] [pdf]

Friedman, B., Kahn, P. H., Jr., and Hagman, J. (2003). Hardware companions? - What online AIBO discussion forums reveal about the human-robotic relationship. Proceedings of CHI 2003 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 273-280. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

Kahn, P. H., Jr., Friedman, B., Freier, N., and Severson, R. (2003). Coding manual for children's interactions with AIBO, the robotic dog - The preschool study. (UW CSE Technical Report 03-04-03). Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. [pdf]

2002

Friedman, B., and Borning, A. (2002). Value Sensitive Design as a pattern: Examples from informed consent in web browsers and from urban simulation. Proceedings of DIAC 2002 Directions and Implications of Advanced Computing Symposium , 109-113. Palo Alto, CA: Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility. [pdf]

Friedman, B., Howe, D. C., and Felten, E. (2002). Informed consent in the Mozilla browser: Implementing Value-Sensitive Design. Proceedings of the Thirty-Fifth Annual Hawai'i International Conference on System Sciences. Abstract, p. 247; CD-ROM of full-paper, OSPE101. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society. Best Paper Award, Organizational Systems Track. [pdf]

Friedman, B., Hurley, D., Howe, D. C., Felten, E., and Nissenbaum, H. (2002). Users' conceptions of web security: A comparative study. Extended Abstracts of CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 746-747. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

Friedman, B., Nissenbaum, H., Hurley, D., Howe, D. C., and Felten, E. (2002). Users' conceptions of risks and harms on the web: A comparative study. Extended Abstracts of CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 614-615. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

Kahn, P. H., Jr., Friedman, B., and Hagman, J. (2002). "I care about him as a pal": Conceptions of robotic pets in online AIBO discussion forums. Extended Abstracts of CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 632-633. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

2001

Borriello, G., Friedman, B., and Kahn, P. H. Jr. (2001). Ubiquitous computing: Technical, psychological, and value-sensitive integrations. In Schmidt, A., Ljungstrand, P., and Dey, A. K. (Eds.), Distributed and disappearing user interfaces in ubiquitous computing, 35-39. (Technical Report 2001-6). Department of Computer Science, University of Karlsruhe, Germany. [pdf]

Friedman, B., and Thomas, J. C. (2001). Is ignorance bliss? Informed consent online. Extended Abstracts of CHI 2001 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 215-216. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

Millett, L., Friedman, B., and Felten, E. (2001). Cookies and Web browser design: Toward realizing informed consent online. Proceedings of CHI 2001 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 46-52. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

2000

Friedman, B., and Kahn, P. H., Jr. (2000). New directions: A Value-Sensitive Design approach to augmented reality. Conference Proceedings of DARE 2000: Design of Augmented Reality Environments, 163-164. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

Friedman, B., Kahn, P. H., Jr., and Howe, D. C. (2000). Trust online. Communications of the ACM, 43(12), 34-40. [pdf]

Friedman, B., Millett, L., and Felten, Ed. (2000). Informed consent online: A conceptual model and design principles. (UW CSE Technical Report 00-12-02.) Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. [pdf]

1998

Waddell, P., and Borning, A. (1998). Participatory design of an integrated land use - transportation modeling system: First steps. Poster presentation at the Fifth Biennial Participatory Design Conference. Seattle, WA. [pdf]

1997

Friedman, B. (1997). Social judgments and technological innovation: Adolescents' understanding of property, privacy, and electronic information. Computers in Human Behavior, 13(3), 327-351. [pdf]

Friedman, B. (Ed.) (1997). Human values and the design of computer technology. New York: Cambridge University Press and CSLI, Stanford University.

Friedman, B. and Nissenbaum, H. (1997). Software agents and user autonomy. Proceedings of First International Conference on Autonomous Agents, 466-469. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

1996

Friedman, B. (1996). Value-sensitive design. ACM interactions, 3(6), 17-23. [pdf]

Friedman, B., and Nissenbaum, H. (1996). Bias in computer systems. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 14(3), 330-347. [pdf]

1995

Friedman, B., and Millett, L. (1995). "It's the computer's fault" -- Reasoning about computers as moral agents. Conference Companion of CHI 1995 - Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 226-227. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

Friedman, B., and Nissenbaum, H. (1995, May). Minimizing bias in computer systems. Conference Companion of CHI 1995 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 444. New York: ACM Press. [pdf]

1992

Friedman, B. (1992). Designing computer systems for human and (humane) use. In D. Schular (Ed.), Proceedings of Conference on Directions and Implications of Advanced Computing, 131-133. Berkeley, CA.

Friedman, B., and Kahn, P. H., Jr. (1992). Human agency and responsible computing: Implications for computer system design. Journal of Systems and Software, 17, 7-14. Reprinted in B. Friedman (Ed.). (1997). Human values and the design of computer technology, 221-235. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. [pdf]